What is the Saliva Glucose Biosensor?
The Saliva Glucose Biosensor is the first non-invasive, saliva-based glucose test for diabetes management that measures glucose in saliva, not blood.

The biosensor itself is a small, disposable strip that a person with diabetes can use to test their glucose levels in their saliva.

The organic strip emits an electronic signal to a smart device, which then displays the individual’s glucose reading, replacing the need for painful finger-prick blood testing.

Our innovative technology will free people living with diabetes from having to use painful and invasive blood monitoring devices to manage their condition, giving them a better quality of life.
Do I still need to prick my finger to test my glucose levels when using the Saliva Glucose Biosensor?
No, the Saliva Glucose Biosensor is completely non-invasive, so no needles are involved.
How does the biosensor detect glucose in saliva?
Glucose exists in saliva in minute quantities. The biosensor has been scientifically proven to detect glucose at concentrations of 100 times lower than current blood measuring devices and hence has the ability to accurately detect glucose in saliva.

When the Saliva Glucose Biosensor interacts with glucose in saliva, an electrochemical reaction is initiated in the biosensor strip, which produces an electrical signal directly related to the amount of glucose present in the saliva. This measurement is then converted into a saliva glucose reading and displayed by a digital app.
Is the test as accurate as testing glucose in blood?
Yes. The Saliva Glucose Biosensor strip tests glucose levels in saliva via organic thin film transistor (OTFT) technology, which has been scientifically proven to detect glucose at concentrations of 100 times lower than current blood measuring devices.

The Saliva Glucose Biosensor is being developed to comply with the universally accepted standard for glucose monitoring devices, ISO standard 15197 2013, and to substitute finger-prick testing.
Where was the Saliva Glucose Biosensor invented?
The Saliva Glucose Biosensor was invented by scientists at the Centre for Organic Electronics at The University of Newcastle, Australia.

For more information on the Centre visit https://www.newcastle.edu.au/research-and-innovation/centre/coe/about-us
Has the Saliva Glucose Biosensor been scientifically proven?
Yes. The Saliva Glucose Biosensor has been the subject of the following publications:

• ‘Detection of saliva-range glucose concentrations using organic thin-film transistors’, D. Elkington, W. J. Belcher, P. C. Dastoor, and X. J. Zhou, Applied Physics Letters 105,043303 (2014)

• ‘Printable organic thin film transistors for glucose detection incorporating inkjet-printing of the enzyme recognition elements’, D. Elkington, W. J. Belcher, P. C. Dastoor, and X. J. Zhou, Applied Physics Letters 106, 266301 (2015)

The Biosensor has also been granted two patents: US patent 9766199 and China patent ZL201380022888, both expiring in 2033.
Is the Saliva Glucose Biosensor patent protected?
Yes. The Saliva Glucose Biosensor technology is patent protected and clearly described in the following two granted patents: US patent 9766199 and China patent ZL201380022888, both expiring year 2033. More patents are being, and will continue to be, filed as we continue to develop the life cycle of the Biosensor.
What is the benefit of using the Saliva Glucose Biosensor over traditional blood glucose tests for diabetes management?
The Saliva Glucose Biosensor is non-invasive, meaning that no needles are involved.

Blood glucose monitoring conventionally involves finger pricking multiple times a day. For a person with diabetes, the traditional daily monitoring process is not only painful but can be exhausting, disruptive, frustrating, frightening and consuming, which may lead to poor adherence to daily testing requirements and increases diabetes related complications.

The Saliva Glucose Biosensor will free people living with diabetes from having to use painful and invasive blood monitoring devices to manage their condition, giving them a better quality of life.
What is the difference between the Saliva Glucose Biosensor and Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) devices?
People living with diabetes test their glucose levels by pricking their fingers multiple times daily. This is the only approved method by regulatory agencies to measure glucose in order to adjust patient treatment. CGM is a different method which is also invasive, and it is not licensed by regulatory agencies for this purpose.

Because of this, CGM devices are not directly comparable to the Saliva Glucose Biosensor.

CGM requires the insertion of a glucose sensor into the subcutaneous tissue layer of skin which detects glucose in the interstitial fluid. The devices are generally worn for about one week and still require regular calibration through conventional blood glucose detection (finger-pricking), about twice a day. Additionally, glucose levels in interstitial fluid change at a slower rate than plasma glucose, which can be a restriction to their effectiveness, particularly if glucose levels are changing rapidly. Subcutaneous glucose levels also have a time lag compared to blood glucose measurements, and measurements may not always match blood glucose.

CGM results should be considered in conjunction with blood glucose measurements for glycaemic assessment and therapy adjustment in all patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Whereas the Saliva Glucose Biosensor is intended to be non-adjunctive to blood glucose testing for diabetes treatment decisions.

In contrast to CGM, the Saliva Glucose Biosensor is pain-free, convenient and non-invasive. It is intended to replace finger-prick blood testing, enabling patients to adjust their treatment according to their glucose readings. Additionally, through the digital app software, patients can store and send results to carers, receive dietary advice in real-time to improve their quality of life.
Can the biosensor technology be used to measure analytes other than glucose?
GBSG has commenced the development of a pilot research and development program to include tumor markers, immunological tests, hormones and other biochemical tests. Click here to learn more.
Can people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes both use the Saliva Glucose Biosensor?
Yes. The Saliva Glucose Biosensor is being developed for people living with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
How is the Saliva Glucose Biosensor being manufactured?
The Saliva Glucose Biosensor is being developed and is not a registered medical device in any jurisdiction. Prototypes of the Biosensor are currently being manufactured in Australia using modified reel-to-reel printing technology. This technology allows manufacturing to scale at a competitive cost.
When will the Saliva Glucose Biosensor be available in Greater China?
The Saliva Glucose Biosensor is currently at advanced stages of development and GBSG intends to commence pre-launch activities in the Greater China Region by 2020, concurrently with market access and regulatory activities.
When will the Saliva Glucose Biosensor be available in countries outside of the Greater China region?
GBSG is the exclusive licensee of the Saliva Glucose Biosensor in the Greater China region, which includes mainland China, Hong Kong, Vietnam and Bangladesh. For further enquiries, submit a query here.
How can I find out when the Saliva Glucose Biosensor is available in my region?
Be first to hear about technology updates and launch plans on the Saliva Glucose Biosensor by subscribing to The iQ Group Global mailing list here.
Who owns GBSG?
Glucose Biosensor Systems (Greater China) Holdings, Inc. (GBSG) is a biosensor diagnostic technology company that is commercializing the patent protected Saliva Glucose Biosensor in the Greater China Region.

GBSG is a company incorporated in Delaware and is a member of The iQ Group Global based in Sydney, Australia.